Saturday, February 28, 2015

Swine Flu

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What is the swine flu?

Swine flu (swine influenza) is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Swine flu can last about one to two weeks in pigs that survive. Swine influenza virus was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in the U.S. and has been recognized by pork producers and veterinarians to cause infections in pigs worldwide. In a number of instances, people have developed the swine flu infection when they are closely associated with pigs (for example, farmers, pork processors), and likewise, pig populations have occasionally been infected with the human flu infection. In most instances, the cross-species infections (swine virus to man; human flu virus to pigs) have remained in local areas and have not caused national or worldwide infections in either pigs or humans. Unfortunately, this cross-species situation with influenza viruses has had the potential to change. Investigators decided the 2009 so-called "swine flu" strain, first seen in Mexico, should be termed novel H1N1 flu since it was mainly found infecting people and exhibits two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1) and N1 (neuraminidase type1). The eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains.

Swine flu is transmitted from person to person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets containing virus from people sneezing or coughing; it is not transmitted by eating cooked pork products. The newest swine flu virus that has caused swine flu is influenza A H3N2v (commonly termed H3N2v) that began as an outbreak in 2011. The "v" in the name means the virus is a variant that normally infects only pigs but has begun to infect humans. There have been small outbreaks of H1N1 since the pandemic; a recent one is in India where at least three people have died.
What causes swine flu?

The cause of the 2009 swine flu was an influenza A virus type designated as H1N1. In 2011, a new swine flu virus was detected. The new strain was named influenza A (H3N2)v. Only a few people (mainly children) were first infected, but officials from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported increased numbers of people infected in the 2012-2013 flu season. Currently, there are not large numbers of people infected with H3N2v. Unfortunately, another virus termed H3N2 (note no "v" in its name) has been detected and caused flu, but this strain is different from H3N2v. In general, all of the influenza A viruses have a structure similar to the H1N1 virus; each type has a somewhat different H and/or N structure.

Why is swine flu now infecting humans?

Many researchers now consider that two main series of events can lead to swine flu (and also avian or bird flu) becoming a major cause for influenza illness in humans.

First, the influenza viruses (types A, B, C) are enveloped RNA viruses with a segmented genome; this means the viral RNA genetic code is not a single strand of RNA but exists as eight different RNA segments in the influenza viruses. A human (or bird) influenza virus can infect a pig respiratory cell at the same time as a swine influenza virus; some of the replicating RNA strands from the human virus can get mistakenly enclosed inside the enveloped swine influenza virus. For example, one cell could contain eight swine flu and eight human flu RNA segments. The total number of RNA types in one cell would be 16; four swine and four human flu RNA segments could be incorporated into one particle, making a viable eight RNA-segmented flu virus from the 16 available segment types. Various combinations of RNA segments can result in a new subtype of virus (this process is known as antigenic shift) that may have the ability to preferentially infect humans but still show characteristics unique to the swine influenza virus (see Figure 1). It is even possible to include RNA strands from birds, swine, and human influenza viruses into one virus if a single cell becomes infected with all three types of influenza (for example, two bird flu, three swine flu, and three human flu RNA segments to produce a viable eight-segment new type of flu viral genome). Formation of a new viral type is considered to be antigenic shift; small changes within an individual RNA segment in flu viruses are termed antigenic drift (see figure 1) and result in minor changes in the virus. However, these small genetic changes can accumulate over time to produce enough minor changes that cumulatively alter the virus' makeup over time (usually years).

Second, pigs can play a unique role as an intermediary host to new flu types because pig respiratory cells can be infected directly with bird, human, and other mammalian flu viruses. Consequently, pig respiratory cells are able to be infected with many types of flu and can function as a "mixing pot" for flu RNA segments (see figure 1). Bird flu viruses, which usually infect the gastrointestinal cells of many bird species, are shed in bird feces. Pigs can pick these viruses up from the environment, and this seems to be the major way that bird flu virus RNA segments enter the mammalian flu virus population. Figure 1 shows this process in H1N1, but the figure represents the genetic process for all flu viruses, including human, swine, and avian strains.

What are the symptoms of swine flu?

Symptoms of swine flu are similar to most influenza infections: fever (100 F or greater), cough, nasal secretions, fatigue, and headache, with fatigue being reported in most infected individuals. Some patients may also get a sore throat, rash, body aches, headaches, chills, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In Mexico, many of the initial patients infected with H1N1 influenza were young adults, which made some investigators speculate that a strong immune response, as seen in young people, may cause some collateral tissue damage.The incubation period from exposure to first symptoms is about one to four days, with an average of two days. The symptoms last about one to two weeks and can last longer if the person has a severe infection.

Some patients develop severe respiratory symptoms and need respiratory support (such as a ventilator to breathe for the patient). Patients can get pneumonia (bacterial secondary infection) if the viral infection persists, and some can develop seizures. Death often occurs from secondary bacterial infection of the lungs; appropriate antibiotics need to be used in these patients. The usual mortality (death) rate for typical influenza A is about 0.1%, while the 1918 "Spanish flu" epidemic had an estimated mortality rate ranging from 2%-20%. Swine (H1N1) flu in Mexico had about 160 deaths and about 2,500 confirmed cases, which would correspond to a mortality rate of about 6%, but these initial data were revised and the mortality rate worldwide was estimated to be much lower. Fortunately, the mortality rate of H1N1 remained low and similar to that of the conventional flu (average conventional flu mortality rate is about 36,000 per year; projected H1N1 flu mortality rate was 90,000 per year in the U.S. as determined by the president's advisory committee, but it never approached that high number).

Fortunately, although H1N1 developed into a pandemic (worldwide) flu strain, the mortality rate in the U.S. and many other countries only approximated the usual numbers of flu deaths worldwide. Speculation about why the mortality rate remained much lower than predicted includes increased public awareness and action that produced an increase in hygiene (especially hand washing), a fairly rapid development of a new vaccine, and patient self-isolation if symptoms developed.

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Thursday, February 26, 2015


A cartoon is a form of two-dimensional illustrated visual art. While the specific definition has changed over time, modern usage refers to a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic drawing or painting intended for satire, caricature, or humor, or to the artistic style of such works. An artist who creates cartoons is called a cartoonist.
The concept originated in the Middle Ages and first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, fresco, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, it came to refer to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers, and in the early 20th century and onward it referred to comic strips and animated films.

Fine art
A cartoon (from the Italian "cartone" and Dutch word "karton", meaning strong, heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass or tapestry. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days (giornate).
Such cartoons often have pinpricks along the outlines of the design; a bag of soot was then patted or "pounced" over the cartoon, held against the wall to leave black dots on the plaster ("pouncing"). Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London and examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are highly prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons, usually coloured, were followed by eye by the weavers on the loom.

Print media
In modern print media, a cartoon is a piece of art, usually humorous in intent. This usage dates from 1843 when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages, particularly sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster. The original title for these drawings was Mr Punch's face is the letter Q and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians.
Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines, generally consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath or (much less often) a speech balloon. Newspaper syndicates have also distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman, Gary Larson, George Lichty, Fred Neher and others. Many consider New Yorker cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon (as did Arno himself). The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes Charles Addams, Charles Barsotti and Chon Day.

Bill Hoest, Jerry Marcus and Virgil Partch began as a magazine gag cartoonists and moved on to do syndicated comic strips. Noteworthy in the area of newspaper cartoon illustration is Richard Thompson, who illustrated numerous feature articles in The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip. Sports sections of newspapers usually featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester "Chet" Brown's All in Sport.
Editorial cartoons are found almost exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they also employ humor, they are more serious in tone, commonly using irony or satire. The art usually acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social and/or political topics. Editorial cartoons often include speech balloons and, sometimes, multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, David Low, Jeff MacNelly, Mike Peters and Gerald Scarfe.
Comic strips, also known as "cartoon strips" in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, and are usually a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence. In the United States they are not as commonly called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are usually referred to as "cartoonists". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter, adventure and drama are also represented in this medium. Noteworthy cartoonists of humor strips include Scott Adams, Steve Bell, Charles Schulz, E. C. Segar, Mort Walker and Bill Watterson.

Political cartoons
By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many countries featured cartoons commenting on the politics of the day. Thomas Nast in New York City brought realistic German drawing techniques to enliven American cartooning. His 160 cartoons relentlessly pursued the criminal characteristic of the Tweed machine in New York City, and help bring it down. Indeed, Tweed was arrested in Spain, when police identified him from Nast's cartoons. Sir John Tenniel was the toast of London.
Political cartoons can be humorous or satirical, sometimes with piercing effect. The target may complain, but they can seldom fight back. Lawsuits have been very rare. the first successful lawsuit against the cartoonist in over a century in Britain came in 1921 when J.H. Thomas, the leader of the National Union of Railwaymen (NUR), initiated libel proceedings against the magazine of the British Communist Party. Thomas claimed defamation in the form of cartoons and words depicting the events of "Black Friday"—when he allegedly betrayed the locked-out Miners' Federation. To Thomas, the framing of his image by the far left threatened to grievously degrade his character In the popular imagination. Soviet-inspired Communism was a new element in European politics, and cartoonists unrestrained by tradition tested the boundaries of libel law. Thomas won his lawsuit, and restore his reputation.

Scientific cartoons
Also in the world of science, mathematics and technology cartoons have found their place. One well-known cartoonist in the USA is Sidney Harris. Many of Gary Larson's cartoons had a scientific flavor.

Cartoons related to chemistry are for example xkcd and the Wonderlab looking at the daily life at the lab.

Books with cartoons are usually reprints of newspaper cartoons. On some occasions, new gag cartoons have been created for book publication, as was the case with Think Small, a 1967 promotional book distributed as a giveaway by Volkswagen dealers. Bill Hoest and other cartoonists of that decade drew cartoons showing Volkswagens, and these were published along with humorous automotive essays by such humorists as H. Allen Smith, Roger Price and Jean Shepherd. The book's design juxtaposed each cartoon alongside a photograph of the cartoon's creator.

Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies, "cartoon" came to refer to animation, and the word "cartoon" is currently used to refer to both animated cartoons and gag cartoons. While "animation" designates any style of illustrated images seen in rapid succession to give the impression of movement, the word "cartoon" is most often used in reference to TV programs and short films for children featuring anthropomorphized animals, superheroes, the adventures of child protagonists and related genres.

At the end of the 1980s, the word "cartoon" was shortened, and the word "toon" came into usage with the live action/animated feature Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988), followed two years later by the TV series Tiny Toon Adventures (1990).

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Menstrual Cramps

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Home Remedies

1. Exercise
This might sound a little crazy and you might be thinking to yourself, I can barely move, let alone exercise. However, brisk walking, or any type of physical activity, can help to ease your belly pain. When you're doing any type of aerobic exercise, your body is pumping more blood; this helps to release endorphins to counteract the prostaglandins and reduce your cramps. Exercising three to four times a week is good for the overall health of your body, but it is especially important if you're prone to painful menstrual cramps.

2. Ginger
Ginger is a wonder herb that can effectively ease menstrual cramps. This herb plays a key role in lowering the levels of the pain-causing prostaglandins. It also helps fight fatigue associated with premenstrual syndrome and can make irregular periods regular.
Grate a small piece of ginger and boil it in a cup of water for five minutes. Strain it and add a little honey and lemon juice. Drink this tea three times a day during your menstrual cycle.
You can also add ginger in your food while cooking or suck on some ginger candies.

3. Apply heat
Heat helps to relax the contracting muscles in your uterus, which is the cause for your pain. There are many over-the-counter heating patches and pads, such as ThermaCare, Bengay, or electric, reusable ones. Or, even taking a regular plastic bottle with hot water and applying it to your abdomen is an alternative when you don't have access to a heating pad.

4. Basil
Basil is another very effective herb for reducing menstrual pain and cramps. The caffeic acid present in basil has analgesic, or pain-killing properties.
Add one tablespoon of basil leaves to one cup of boiling water. Cover tightly and allow it to cool. Drink this every few hours to ease cramps.
Alternatively, crush a handful of basil leaves to extract the juice. Add two teaspoons of the juice to one cup of warm water. Drink this three times daily while having pain.
You can also add fresh basil leaves to your food.

5. Drink chamomile tea
A study published in the Journal of Agriculture and Chemistry found that there might be pain-relieving properties in this fragrant tea. "This is one of a growing number of studies that provide evidence that commonly used natural products really do contain chemicals that may be of medicinal value," said Elaine Holmes, Ph.D., a chemist with the Imperial College of London. The research found that when 14 participants were given urine samples, their urinary levels had a significant increase in hippurate, which is a natural anti-inflammatory. Anti-inflammatory drugs help to decrease the prostaglandin production, thus relieving menstrual cramps.

6. Make sure you're getting enough vitamin D
Prevention is always better than the cure, which is why making sure your body has enough vitamin D is important in preventing menstrual cramps. A study found that high doses of vitamin D3 led to a significant decrease in menstrual cramps. As reported by, "40 Italian women were split into two groups: one receiving a single oral dose of 300,000 IUs of vitamin D3 and the other getting a placebo five days before the expected start of their menstrual periods." Their pain scored dropped by 41 percent, while those in the placebo group saw no change in their pain scale.

7. Fennel
The antispasmodic, phytoestrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of fennel can help relax the muscles in the uterus, which in turn relieves cramping and discomfort.
Add one teaspoon of fennel seeds to a cup of boiling water.
Simmer the mixture on low heat for five minutes.
Remove from heat and strain the tea.
Add one teaspoon of honey and mix well.
Drink this herbal tea two times daily beginning three days before the expected start date of your cycle. Continue drinking it as needed for pain. Drink it hot for best results.

8. Have an orgasm         
Yes, that's right — orgasms help to relieve all kinds of pain, including menstrual cramps. Before an orgasm, the uterus is more relaxed, and at the moment of climax, blood flow increases, helping to relieve the cramps. Orgams relieve the pain through the release of endorphins, which help you to feel instantly better. They also help to relax your whole body and induce sleep so you won't feel any cramping at all.

9. Acupuncture
Acupuncture is a component of traditional Chinese medicine, which involves sticking the skin with small needles to stimulate the body at certain points. Researchers from the Oriental Hospital at Kyung Hee University Medical Center in South Korea found that acupuncture might have positive effects on menstrual cramps. The study was based on 10 trials with 944 participants. "There was an improvement in pain relief from acupressure compared with a placebo control," according to the study.

10. Flaxseed
Flaxseed is great for reducing the intensity of menstrual cramps. The essential fatty acids in flaxseed help stabilize the production of progesterone. Plus, flaxseed can improve uterine function and help treat fertility problems.

When suffering from menstrual cramps, consume one to two tablespoons of flaxseed daily. You can sprinkle ground flaxseed over a salad, cereal and yogurt or put it in a smoothie.

Early Marriage

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Understanding the Sexual and Reproductive Health Risks of Early Marriage
Childhood and adolescence are usually the greatest years of one’s life. This period is cut short, however, when marriage and adult responsibilities come too early. Although most nations have declared 18 as the legal minimum age to enter into marriage, in many developing countries the practice of early marriage for girls is widespread. In 2002, the Population Council predicted that over the following decade more than 100 million girls worldwide would marry before their 18th birthday. Some of these girls will marry as young as eight or nine, and many will marry against their will.

There are many consequences of child marriage on young girls’ sexual and reproductive health, and many of the meaningful life experiences of adolescence are lost forever.

(Not so) Good Intentions
The decision for a young girl to marry is most often made by her parents or the community. Social and gender norms, cultural beliefs and economic situations all contribute to the pressure put on girls to marry at a young age. Some parents believe that, by marrying their daughter at an early age, they are helping her to fulfill her main societal function – that of wife and mother. They may also believe that they are providing her with protection by limiting sexual relations to only one partner (and therefore reducing the risk of STIs and HIV), and by ensuring some kind of financial stability for both the daughter and the family.
No matter how good their intentions may be, the reality is that an early marriage generally offers no protection at all – in fact, the opposite is generally true – and it strips many young girls of their childhood, their dreams, their basic human rights and their health.

Sacrificed health
Though parents may believe they are protecting their daughter from STI and HIV transmission, they are typically putting their child more at risk. Husbands are often considerably older and have more sexual experience, sometimes entering the marriage already infected with STIs or HIV. Studies in parts of Kenya and Zambia show that teenage brides are contracting HIV at a faster rate than sexually active single girls in the same location.

Child brides face much pressure to have children soon after marriage, which not only interrupts efforts to reduce STI transmission through use of condoms, but also puts the girl at an increased risk of maternal death. Girls between the ages of 15 and 19 are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and childbirth, including obstetric fistula. They are also more likely to have children with low birth weight, inadequate nutrition and anemia. The health of these young mothers is further compromised, as they are also more likely to develop cervical cancer later in life.

“Married adolescents have been largely ignored in development and health agendas because of the perception that their married status ensures them a safe passage to adulthood. Nothing could be further from the truth.”

          - Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, UNFPA Executive Director

The lack of power associated with child marriage poses additional reproductive health risks. Young wives often have limited autonomy and freedom, and are unable to negotiate sexual relations, contraceptive use, childbearing, and other aspects of domestic life. The inability to negotiate condom use puts them in a vulnerable position for contracting STIs and HIV.
Unequal gender relations and the large age difference between husbands and young wives also increases the likelihood of domestic violence. Women who marry young are more likely to be beaten or threatened, and are most likely to believe that a husband’s violence is justified.

Once married, young girls are typically forced to leave behind their family, friends and community and move to their new husband’s home. Their ability to attend school is disrupted, eliminating another source of social support and interrupting their education. With limited freedom to leave the home and converse with others, girls are left in isolation with little or no means of receiving information on reproductive health issues. They are often powerless to access health care services, as they may need permission to receive such services; if refused, they are typically unable to pay for health care services. Without health information or social services, married girls are unable to seek support. Their problems remain unknown or ignored by the community, and they becomes invisible victims.

Dream no more
Early marriage results in a loss of childhood. Girls are inhibited from realizing their dreams and aspirations. Their rights are violated and they lose the ability to choose how their life is fulfilled. Their right to choose when they become pregnant and how many children they will have is no longer theirs. Their sexual and reproductive health is sacrificed, sometimes to the point of causing death.

Change is difficult
Changing social and gender norms is never easy. Families and communities, including boys and men, need to understand the risks associated with child marriage and become engaged in the process of making change. Powerless and isolated, married girls are in need of our support. But what can be done?
Providing opportunities for girls to continue their education or earn money, while expanding their skills and available choices in life, is one effective strategy to delay marriage. In Bangladesh, the implementation of a secondary school scholarship program for girls resulted in a declined rate of early marriage. The expansion of schooling and provision of job training helps to increase the autonomy and freedom of girls.

Although laws forbidding early marriage exist in most countries, much effort is still needed to ensure enforcement of such laws. Further work needs to be done to reduce the barriers young women face in seeking out health services and information outside their marital households, including access to family planning programs. Youth programs are effective in educating and empowering young women (as well as young men) about reproductive health and rights. Such programs should be encouraged and available not only in schools, but in communities and rural areas as well. Public education and advocacy projects that target policy-makers could be useful in preventing early marriage and in making visible the problems and risks that young brides face.

No matter what efforts are used to instill change, one thing remains certain: young girls' health, education, and social and economic needs should be addressed holistically and simultaneously. In addressing change in attitudes amongst communities, cultural and religious traditions need to be considered and integrated into the solution.

Violations of Human Rights
Child marriage is a violation of a girl’s sexual and reproductive rights, which include the rights to:
  • The highest attainable standard of sexual health
  • Be free from coercion, discrimination, violence and abuse
  • Consensual sexual relations
  • Pursue a satisfyin, safe and pleasurable sexual life
  • A choice of partner and consensual marriage
  • Seek, receive, and impact information and education related to sexual health, including information on how to protect against unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV/AIDS
  • Decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing, and timing of her children, and to have the information and the means to do so
  • Access sexual and reproductive health services (Married girls seeking sexual and reproductive health services are often turned away from health facilities because they require a husband's consent before care is provided)
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Wednesday, February 25, 2015

FilmFare Award 2015

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Having crushes can be a wonderful, scary, fun, and heartbreaking experience. When you get your first crush, you're confused about what's happening. You've never had these feelings before. Over time, though, you'll realize that it is all a normal part of growing up.
The First Time

You see that guy you don't even know walking down the hallway at school and your heart skips a beat. You start to blush. You might want to just get out of there, fast. Or maybe there's a girl you've always been friends with, who is great fun to talk to and hang out with. Then one day she walks into chemistry class, and suddenly you're the one feeling the chemistry.

Young love or lust can happen anywhere, any time. One minute you're feeling normal and the next, someone catches your eye and your world is turned upside down. Your crush might be someone you know, or it could be someone you've never met. It may even be someone you'll never meet, like a hot actor in a movie or a gorgeous athlete.

The funny thing is you can't choose who you'll have feelings for, just as later in life you won't be able to pick who you fall in love with. You might find someday you're fixating on a person who you hated just a few days ago. Such is the world of wild emotions you've entered when you have your first crush!

All people react differently. Some people aren't afraid to tell another person they like them. Others don't even want to talk to the object of their affection. Some tease the person they like as a way to get attention. Many daydream about hanging out with that special person. You might find yourself thinking about her all the time, or mindlessly writing his name in the margins of your notebook.
Dealing with a Crush

Just as there are many ways to react to crushes, there are several options for dealing with your feelings.
•             You can ignore your feelings and hope they go away. This can be difficult if your crush is someone you know, because it's hard to act natural when you're full of emotions.
•             You can enjoy the fantasy. This is the best course when you're obsessing on someone like an actor or an athlete, because you'll never get to meet them. Share your feelings with your friends, and you can all enjoy daydreaming about what would happen if you ever got to meet the object of your affection.
•             You can tell the person you have a crush on him or her. It's really difficult to admit to these kinds of feelings, especially with someone you don't know very well. There's great potential for disappointment. The person might make fun of you or laugh at you. Even if he or she lets you down easily, it can still give you that crushing feeling of heartbreak.
•             A better course might be to try to befriend the person your heart is set on, if he or she isn't already your friend. Spend some time with the person in group activities like going to a football game. As you get to know each other better, you might find the time is right to confess your feelings.
If you work up the courage to tell your crush how you feel and he or she rejects you, it can seem devastating. It's a horrible feeling to know someone you like doesn't like you. It can be embarrassing to confess your feelings and then learn they aren't mutual. Know that while this feels horrible, it is only temporary. Before long you'll be happily obsessing over someone else. If you have difficulty moving past your feelings, talk to one of your parents or a trusted adult.

When Someone Has a Crush on You
Of course, crushes are a two-way street, and while you're suffering through having feelings for someone who barely knows you're alive, someone else might be feeling that way about you.
If someone confesses his or her feelings to you and you don't like them, try to be nice about it. If you've been rejected in the past, remember how bad that feels. Tell the person you are flattered but you don't feel the same way.
Remember, if anyone makes you feel uncomfortable or tries to make you do something you don't want to do, even if it's someone you like, tell a parent, teacher or other trusted adult.
And when you find the person you're obsessing over likes you, enjoy that time of being young and feeling crazy about another person who likes you too and maybe even dating that person. There's nothing like it.

Tuesday, February 24, 2015


Health Benefit of Beer
1. Beer keeps your kidneys healthy A Finnish study singled out beer among other alcoholic beverages, finding that it was better for your kidneys. In fact, each bottle of beer you drink reduces the risk of developing kidney stones by 40%.
2. Beer for better digestion Beer, and especially dark beer, contains up to one gram of soluble fibre* in each 30 cl glass - unlike wine, which doesn’t contain any fibre at all. Fibre plays an important role in intestinal transit (a fibre deficiency can cause gastric and intestinal disorders such as constipation or diarrhoea).
3. Beer to lower your bad cholesterol The fibre in beer can also help reduce your levels of LDL cholesterol, i.e. the “bad” type of cholesterol.
4. Beer can increase your vitamin B levels Beer contains several B vitamins (B1, B2, B6 and B12). A Dutch study found that beer drinkers had 30 percent higher levels of vitamin B6 than their non-drinking counterparts, and levels that were twice as high as those of wine drinkers. Beer is also a generous source of vitamin B12, an anti-anaemic factor not found in many foods.
5. Beer for stronger bones! A 2009 study concluded that the elevated levels of silicon in beer can contribute to higher bone density.
6. Beer as a cure for insomnia Lactoflavin and nicotinic acid, which are both present in beer, can promote sleep!
7. Beer reduces your risk of a heart attack Beer drinkers have a 40 to 60 percent reduced risk of suffering a heart attack compared with non-beer drinkers.
8. Beer helps prevent blood clots The ingredients in beer help prevent blood clots from forming.
9. Beer boosts your memory According to studies, beer drinkers are less likely to suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and dementia than non-beer drinkers.
10. Beer helps combat stress Researchers at the University of Montreal found that two glasses of beer a day can reduce work-related stress or anxiety.
11. Beer as a cold remedy Drinking warm beer is an excellent cold remedy! When barley is warmed up it improves blood circulation and helps you breathe when you feel congested. It also provides relief for joint pain and boosts your immunity. So, how do you prepare it? Heat a bottle of beer in a double boiler and then add four small teaspoons of honey.

12. Beer makes skin more beautiful Good news for women! Certain vitamins in beer can regenerate the skin and have a positive impact on pigmentation. Your skin becomes smoother and suppler.

Family Portrait

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Dum Laga Ke Haisha

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Moh Moh Ke Dhaage

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Dard Karaara

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Saturday, February 21, 2015

Desi Look

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