video credit: youtube.com
Wednesday, July 23, 2014
Saturday, July 19, 2014
Wednesday, July 16, 2014
There’s always more than meets the eye. This phrase is often used to describe Scorpios. Driven by tremendous power, extreme strength and intense passion, Scorpio is the most intense zodiac of all. Not in agreement? Well here are 15 reasons why Scorpios rule the zodiac circle.
1) Scorpios are masters of dedication and are driven by passion. They deeply embed their emotions in whatever they do, which is why their creations are nothing short of a masterpiece.
2) “Giving Up” is an alien term for Scorpios. Their perseverance has no saturation point and they make sure they get where they want to, by any means possible.
3) One word defines Scorpios the best - independent. Scorpios hardly rely on anybody for their work. Instead, they feel content working their own way through.
4) But that doesn’t mean they can’t function in a pack. Scorpios are instinctive leaders and are always ready to bear the responsibility of a front man.
5) Scorpios are synonymous to loyalty. They are extremely loyal - be it love, family or friendship.
6) But if you cross them, it’s an eye for an eye. They will never forget you and make sure that vengeance is served at its best.
7) In contrast, if you are helpful towards a Scorpio, they will make sure to be with you in the worst of situations.
8) A friend in need is a Scorpio indeed. There is no doubting the friendship of a Scorpio. They are always there- at any given hour, in any given situation.
9) And if you are dating a Scorpio, you know that they never stop pouring love. They simply never lose out on an opportunity to express the undying love for their partner.
10) It gets even better under the sheets! Sex is not just lust for a Scorpio. Instead, it’s one of their ways to explore life and feelings. This is what makes Scorpio the most sexually passionate sign of the zodiac.
11) Scorpios are social animals. Their jovial nature lights up the mood of every party they go to. In short – Scorpios are party starters.
12) Quirky humor and wittiness comes naturally to Scorpios. That’s why you can neither get bored nor get enough of a Scorpio’s company.
13) They are emotionally profound and extremely touchy. This makes Scorpios perfectly suited to any form of activity that can greatly impact people and society.
14) Their instincts are supremely powerful. Nothing can beat a Scorpio’s gut feeling, which is why Scorpios don’t fail that often.
15) Scorpios believe in taking risks, but not hasty ones. Since Scorpios are deeper thinkers, every risk they take is well calculated and assessed.
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology. This objective investigation may include the use of both quantitative methods (surveys, polls, demographic and census analysis) and qualitative approaches such as participant observation, interviewing, and analysis of archival, historical and documentary materials.
Modern academic sociology began with the analysis of religion in Émile Durkheim's 1897 study of suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations, a foundational work of social research which served to distinguish sociology from other disciplines, such as psychology. The works of Karl Marx and Max Weber emphasized the relationship between religion and the economic or social structure of society. Contemporary debates have centered on issues such as secularization, civil religion, and the cohesiveness of religion in the context of globalization and multiculturalism. The contemporary sociology of religion may also encompass the sociology of irreligion (for instance, in the analysis of secular humanist belief systems).
Sociology of religion is distinguished from the philosophy of religion in that it does not set out to assess the validity of religious beliefs. The process of comparing multiple conflicting dogmas may require what Peter L. Berger has described as inherent "methodological atheism". Whereas the sociology of religion broadly differs from theology in assuming indifference to the supernatural, theorists tend to acknowledge socio-cultural reification of religious practice.
Classical, seminal sociological theorists of the late 19th and early 20th century such as Durkheim, Weber, and Marx were greatly interested in religion and its effects on society. Like those of Plato and Aristotle from ancient Greece, and Enlightenment philosophers from the 17th through 19th centuries, the ideas posited by these sociologists continue to be examined today. More recent prominent sociologists of religion include Peter L. Berger, Robert N. Bellah, Thomas Luckmann, Rodney Stark, William Sims Bainbridge, Robert Wuthnow, Christian Smith, and Bryan R. Wilson.
"Marx was the product of the Enlightenment, embracing its call to replace faith by reason and religion by science." Despite his later influence, Karl Marx did not view his work as an ethical or ideological response to nineteenth-century capitalism (as most later commentators have). His efforts were, in his mind, based solely on what can be called applied science. Marx saw himself as doing morally neutral sociology and economic theory for the sake of human development. As Christiano states, "Marx did not believe in science for science's sake…he believed that he was also advancing a theory that would…be a useful tool…[in] effecting a revolutionary upheaval of the capitalist system in favor of socialism." (124) As such, the crux of his arguments was that humans are best guided by reason. Religion, Marx held, was a significant hindrance to reason, inherently masking the truth and misguiding followers. As we will later see, Marx viewed social alienation as the heart of social inequality. The antithesis to this alienation is freedom. Thus, to propagate freedom means to present individuals with the truth and give them a choice to accept or deny it. In this, "Marx never suggested that religion ought to be prohibited." (Christiano 126)
Central to Marx's theories was the oppressive economic situation in which he dwelt. With the rise of European industrialism, Marx and his colleague Friedrich Engels witnessed and responded to the growth of what he called "surplus value." Marx's view of capitalism saw rich capitalists getting richer and their workers getting poorer (the gap, the exploitation, was the "surplus value"). Not only were workers getting exploited, but in the process they were being further detached from the products they helped create. By simply selling their work for wages, "workers simultaneously lose connection with the object of labor and become objects themselves. Workers are devalued to the level of a commodity – a thing…" (Ibid 125) From this objectification comes alienation. The common worker is led to believe that he or she is a replaceable tool, and is alienated to the point of extreme discontent. Here, in Marx's eyes, religion enters. Capitalism utilizes our tendency towards religion as a tool or ideological state apparatus to justify this alienation. Christianity teaches that those who gather up riches and power in this life will almost certainly not be rewarded in the next ("it is harder for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of Heaven than it is for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle...") while those who suffer oppression and poverty in this life, while cultivating their spiritual wealth, will be rewarded in the Kingdom of God. Thus Marx's famous line - "religion is the opium of the people", as it soothes them and dulls their senses to the pain of oppression.
Émile Durkheim placed himself in the positivist tradition, meaning that he thought of his study of society as dispassionate and scientific. He was deeply interested in the problem of what held complex modern societies together. Religion, he argued, was an expression of social cohesion.
In the fieldwork that led to his famous Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Durkheim, a secular Frenchman, looked at anthropological data of Indigenous Australians. His underlying interest was to understand the basic forms of religious life for all societies. In Elementary Forms, Durkheim argues that the totems the Aborigines venerate are actually expressions of their own conceptions of society itself. This is true not only for the Aborigines, he argues, but for all societies.
Religion, for Durkheim, is not "imaginary," although he does deprive it of what many believers find essential. Religion is very real; it is an expression of society itself, and indeed, there is no society that does not have religion. We perceive as individuals a force greater than ourselves, which is our social life, and give that perception a supernatural face. We then express ourselves religiously in groups, which for Durkheim makes the symbolic power greater. Religion is an expression of our collective consciousness, which is the fusion of all of our individual consciousnesses, which then creates a reality of its own.
It follows, then, that less complex societies, such as the Australian Aborigines, have less complex religious systems, involving totems associated with particular clans. The more complex a particular society, the more complex the religious system is. As societies come in contact with other societies, there is a tendency for religious systems to emphasize universalism to a greater and greater extent. However, as the division of labor makes the individual seem more important (a subject that Durkheim treats extensively in his famous Division of Labor in Society), religious systems increasingly focus on individual salvation and conscience.
Durkheim's definition of religion, from Elementary Forms, is as follows: "A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden – beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them." (Marx, introduction) This is a functional definition of religion, meaning that it explains what religion does in social life: essentially, it unites societies. Durkheim defined religion as a clear distinction between the sacred and the profane, in effect this can be paralleled with the distinction between God and humans.
This definition also does not stipulate what exactly may be considered sacred. Thus later sociologists of religion (notably Robert Bellah) have extended Durkheimian insights to talk about notions of civil religion, or the religion of a state. American civil religion, for example, might be said to have its own set of sacred "things": the Flag of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., etc. Other sociologists have taken Durkheim's concept of what religion is in the direction of the religion of professional sports, the military, or of rock music.
Max Weber published four major texts on religion in a context of economic sociology and his rationalization thesis: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905), The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism (1915), The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism (1915), and Ancient Judaism (1920).
In his sociology, Weber uses the German term "Verstehen" to describe his method of interpretation of the intention and context of human action. Weber is not a positivist – in the sense that he does not believe we can find out "facts" in sociology that can be causally linked. Although he believes some generalized statements about social life can be made, he is not interested in hard positivist claims, but instead in linkages and sequences, in historical narratives and particular cases.
Weber argues for making sense of religious action on its own terms. A religious group or individual is influenced by all kinds of things, he says, but if they claim to be acting in the name of religion, we should attempt to understand their perspective on religious grounds first. Weber gives religion credit for shaping a person's image of the world, and this image of the world can affect their view of their interests, and ultimately how they decide to take action.
For Weber, religion is best understood as it responds to the human need for theodicy and soteriology. Human beings are troubled, he says, with the question of theodicy – the question of how the extraordinary power of a divine god may be reconciled with the imperfection of the world that he has created and rules over. People need to know, for example, why there is undeserved good fortune and suffering in the world. Religion offers people soteriological answers, or answers that provide opportunities for salvation – relief from suffering, and reassuring meaning. The pursuit of salvation, like the pursuit of wealth, becomes a part of human motivation.
Because religion helps to define motivation, Weber believed that religion (and specifically Calvinism) actually helped to give rise to modern capitalism, as he asserted in his most famous and controversial work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
In The Protestant Ethic, Weber argues that capitalism arose in Europe in part because of how the belief in predestination was interpreted by everyday English Puritans. Puritan theology was based on the Calvinist notion that not everyone would be saved; there was only a specific number of the elect who would avoid damnation, and this was based sheerly on God's predetermined will and not on any action you could perform in this life. Official doctrine held that one could not ever really know whether one was among the elect.
Practically, Weber noted, this was difficult psychologically: people were (understandably) anxious to know whether they would be eternally damned or not. Thus Puritan leaders began assuring members that if they began doing well financially in their businesses, this would be one unofficial sign they had God's approval and were among the saved – but only if they used the fruits of their labor well. This along with the rationalism implied by monotheism led to the development of rational bookkeeping and the calculated pursuit of financial success beyond what one needed simply to live – and this is the "spirit of capitalism." Over time, the habits associated with the spirit of capitalism lost their religious significance, and rational pursuit of profit became its own aim.
The Protestant Ethic thesis has been much critiqued, refined, and disputed, but is still a lively source of theoretical debate in sociology of religion. Weber also did considerable work in world religions, including Hinduism and Buddhism.
In his magnum opus Economy and Society Weber distinguished three ideal types of religious attitudes:
1. world-flying mysticism2. world-rejecting asceticism3. inner-worldly asceticism
He also separated magic as pre-religious activity.
Posted by deepa at 1:19 AM
Sociological Perspective: Birth Control
By: Kate Fawcett, Sarah Owens, and Wesley Ply
This topic will explore the topic of birth control from different sociological perspectives. It will discuss how birth control, an issue of our social world, can connect individual experiences and societal relationships. We will discuss American contraceptive culture, how society influences the individual’s views through the media, and demonstrate how different forms of conflict theory can influence the perception of birth control.
Culture from a sociological perspective is made up of many components. There are tangible components, such as technology and symbols, and there are intangible components, such as values, beliefs, norms, and taboos. Culture changes through out history as discoveries are made and new inventions are created. There are subcultures that are considered deviant from society that form their own set of tangible and intangible components. When looking at birth control as a part of American culture, it is easy to identify our symbols, beliefs, and norms of using birth control. However, it was not always like this. As stated above, culture changes with discoveries and inventions and it has been an uphill battle for birth control to be considered a norm. Today, there are still subcultures that completely condemn the use of any contraception.
The pill, condoms, spermicides, intra-uterine devices, diaphragms, vaginal rings, and the morning after pill are all examples of the tangible components of birth control in our culture. There are literally 20+ methods of contraception to choose from in our culture today. These methods can also be a symbol of maturity or promiscuity. To a teenage boy, receiving a condom from his dad before he goes on a date can be a symbol of the boy maturing and coming of age. It can also be a sign of the dad’s respect or trust that he has for his son. While the pill has many different medical uses, seeing a teenage girl using the pill can be a symbol of her promiscuity. In college, some girls may view the pill as a symbol of her independence and ability to make her own decisions. Each method can have a different symbolic meaning to different people.
The values, beliefs, norms, and taboos of birth control in our culture vary but there is an overall acceptance of contraception that wasn’t there before. There is a belief among Americans that contraception is a smart and healthy choice. There has even been a push to make the pill an over the counter drug. Statistics show that the vast majority of sexually active Americans use some form of birth control making it a social norm of our culture. Of course these beliefs are not shared among all Americans. There are many who believe contraception to be morally wrong, mainly for religious reasons, who do not use any form of birth control even during marriage. This would be a taboo to our culture now. They might even be considered a subculture that has developed their own cultural components.
The acceptance of birth control is a relatively recent cultural conception. Congress passed an anti-obscenity law that deemed birth control information obscene and outlaws it’s dissemination in 1873. Since then, technology and science have greatly progressed and new methods of birth control were invented and tested. The social view of contraception slowly began to change from obscene to healthy. This is not all due to the advance in technology. The beliefs and values of Americans concerning sex began to change as well, taking on the perspective that sex is more acceptable. In 1965, Griswold v. Connecticut made the prohibition of contraceptives illegal, setting the course for American culture and birth control in the years to follow.
Society’s opinion of birth control heavily influences the media that we see involving the topic. On the other hand, various mediums of advertisements and commercials play a huge role in providing the public with knowledge of the methods and facts concerning birth control as well as swaying their opinions on the topic. Some of the first birth control pill advertisements were seen in 2000, with Tri-Cyclen. There is a direct correlation with the time that commercials for various birth control methods came about with society’s opinion on the topic as a whole. The United States government began supporting birth control clinics in 1974, and it was not much later that public messages endorsing contraceptive through various mediums were accepted. The FDA accepted the pill as an effective and safe contraceptive in 1990 and a decade later, multiple television and magazine advertisements for the pill would be seen by millions of Americans. As time as progressed, especially with society’s growing acceptance of the pill as well as other forms of birth control, the media has received more freedom in selecting and placing what was once seen as controversial or sacrilegious advertisements and endorsements for various contraceptives. Although companies have been more liberal about the content of birth control advertisements in recent years, many companies still tread on thin ice with media promoting or even involving contraceptive methods.
Many perspectives are based on items seen in magazines, on television, popular culture as well as life pressures. Throughout the late 60s, catholic officials refused to accept any form of birth control, including the pill. However, due to the need for it as well as the influence media placed on many individuals, over two thirds of catholic women across the world were on the pill at that time. As more information has become available to women and their spouses, the acceptance of birth control has become more widespread. In recent happenings, society’s common “need” for birth control has stopped many republican governors and representatives from making various forms of birth control illegal or much more difficult to obtain. Media and pressure from spouses are major contributing factors to a woman’s decision to start taking birth control.
Deciding what form of birth control to use is dictated by when you believe that life begins. Contraceptives are the most utilized form of birth control, and are defined as any process, device or method used to prevent conception. Conception marks the onset of pregnancy, and once this occurs the only birth control option is abortion. Abortion is a very controversial topic in our society and women are forced to make decisions based on their beliefs. Conflict theory is the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general. The conflict in abortion is the battle between “pro-life” and “pro-choice”. These competing interests are what drive most advertisements for birth control in our society. Advertisements can be seen everywhere, either promoting “choice” or promoting “life”. Laws have also been passed because of these competing interests. All states had banned abortion by 1965, but in 1973 the Supreme Court in the famous case of Roe v. Wade, declared state abortion laws to be unconstitutional. The conflicting beliefs of different groups in our society have been the cause for major changes in our societies views and even our laws.
One type of conflict theory is feminist theory, which involves the advocacy of social equality for women. In today’s society, women are becoming more and more active in the work force. Women are becoming just as successful as men, and are much more career oriented than they were in the past. In many cases, women are faced with the conflict of deciding between starting a family or focusing on their career. Traditionally women were expected to be stay at home moms, but with the rise in birth control methods and awareness, women have become empowered to make their own decisions on whether to have children or not. Recently women have been trying to increase the availability of birth control. Georgetown Law student Sandra Fluke went before a Democratic hearing in February asking them to consider including free contraceptive pills in the new health care bill. She claims that she spent $3000 on contraceptives during her three-year period in law school. This caused a lot of controversy among right-winged conservatives specifically catching the attention of radio host, Rush Limbaugh, who called her a “prostitute” because taxpayers would be paying for her to have sex. As you can imagine, there was a large outcry from feminist throughout the country, and Sandra Fluke has become a symbol for women’s empowerment and contraceptive availability.
Birth control, although more widely accepted now, is still a controversial issue in our social world. Companies must take into consideration culture, society’s pull, and conflicting ideologies when promoting their contraceptive methods. It is important to look at this issue from a sociological perspective to gain a better understanding as to why birth control is such a prominent topic.
Article Credit: http://birthcontrolsoc302.blogspot.com/2012/04/this-blog-will-explore-topic-of-birth.html
Sunday, July 13, 2014
Friday, July 11, 2014
Thursday, July 10, 2014
Sunday, July 6, 2014
Vitamin E capsules for Hair
Unbeknownst to many, Vitamin E is an essential nutrient that helps in keeping the heart and skin healthy. But more than this, vitamin E proves to be beneficial to hair health as well. Although scientists and medical experts alike cannot exactly determine how vitamin E aids in keeping the hair healthy, they believe that it produces the same exact mechanism that it does for keeping the heart healthy. It has been proven to show positive effects to hair such as prevention of hair loss and promoting hair growth by enabling growth of the capillaries.
Benefits of Vitamin E for Hair
There are countless benefits that vitamin E can provide for the body including healthy hair growth. Regular intake of this vitamin can prove to be beneficial and its effects can be seen in just a matter of weeks. This supplement can also be applied to skin or scalp topically to further enhance and accelerate the appearance. The quality and texture of the hair can be improved when it is regularly applied with vitamin E oil.
Here are some specific benefits that Vitamin E can provide:
Vitamin E is a great stimulant for growth of capillaries, when the capillaries are healthy and profuse, the blood circulation in the scalp will be enhanced which will therefore promote strong and healthy growth of hair.
Vitamin E contains effective and potent antioxidants that inhibit good health of our body tissues, when our body tissues are strong and healthy, our aging process slows down as well. Therefore, aging signs that may appear in our skin and hair will slow down as well. With regular intake of vitamin D, you will notice that not only will the skin look younger, but premature graying of the hair will be prevented as well.
Because vitamin D oil can be used topically, it can directly condition the hair making it more lustrous, shinier and stronger than it was before. This vitamin oil can also be combined with commercially manufactured conditioner and then massaged on to the scalp to further make the hair soft and smooth.
A lot of women often complain about having split ends, and this is understandable as its appearance can really make hair look dull, dry and lifeless. This can be caused by constant use of hot hair tools without using proper protection on the hair or by regular dyeing of the hair. In order to restore the hair’s health, hair experts advise to treat it with the combined mixture of equal amounts of coconut, olive, jojoba and hemp oils to make 12 ounces. Mix in two oz. vitamin E oil into the mixture and apply to the roots up to the tips of the hair.
Image Credit: www.santabanta.com
Honey Singh (born Hirdesh Singh in Delhi), better known by his stage name Yo Yo Honey Singh, is an Indian rapper, music producer, singer and film actor. He started as a session and recording artist, and became a Bhangra producer. He has also begun to produce music for Bollywood films.
It is reported that Honey Singh prefers to sing in his native language Punjabi and Hindi rather than English. The Punjabi album International Villager was released on 11 November 2011 (11-11-11). The track Gabru from International Villager featuring singer J-Star topped Asian music charts (including the official BBC Asian charts)
He has performed at many college festivals including at Ansal Institute of Technology and Ramjas College, Delhi. He learned DJing from DJ Vishal and stood second in "War of DJs"
Honey Singh has also become widely popular in Bollywood. He was first noticed after his debut song in a Bollywood film featuring Gagan Sidhu for the film Shakal Pe Mat Ja. He has also charged Rs. 7 million for a song in an upcoming film titled Mastaan starring Naseeruddin Shah. It is the biggest amount paid to a song artist in Bollywood to date, making Honey Singh the highest-paid musical artist in Bollywood.
Also, a song named Angreji Beat from Honey Singh's recently released album International Villager featuring Gippy Grewal, was featured in Saif Ali Khan's film Cocktail.
Singh, also launched his single track "Bring Me Back ft. Spoken Word" at Video Music Awards India which aired on MTV India. The award show was packed with many films and independent artists throughout the world including India. After the end of the show, his song was also premiered at the channel.
He has been widely popular in Bollywood film music these days for composing songs in films such as Mere Dad Ki Maruti, Bajatey Raho, Chennai Express & Boss. He has also signed on a few of his songs on some of Akshay Kumar's next films, including his production Fugly and the Shaukeen remake.
Honey Singh made his acting debut in a Punjabi movie, titled Mirza (2012), performing the role of Deesha, a mad gangster. Despite only being a cameo appearance, the role went on to win Singh an award for Best Male Debut (PTC Punjabi Film Awards). The following year, Singh appeared in another Punjabi flick, the comedy film Tu Mera 22 Main Tera 22, as Rolly, a childish and spoilt brat, alongside Amrinder Gill.
Despite appearing in a number of guest appearances in Bollywood films for the songs he produces, in films such as Boss, Honey Singh made his actual Bollywood acting debut with the 2014 musical-thriller film The Xpose alongside Himesh Reshammiya. The film released on 16 May 2014, to mixed reviews from critics, and a below average response at the box office apparently. Despite a Bollywood acting debut, Honey Singh is also expecting to star in his third Punjabi film this year, titled Zorawar, directed by Vinnil Markan.